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Biometrics Technology :
Biometrics is the technology or discipline
that recognizes a persons biological and
behavarioul characteristics, thereby verifying
the identity of the corresponding individual.
A more restricted definition of biometrics
refers to the science designed to enable
a machine to analyze a person's biological
and behavarioul traits for the verification
of his or her identity.
From the users' point of view, Biometrics
is gaining wide popularity for two main
Increased Security Management
Biometrics offers superior security than
PIN or ID card identifications. In today's
world, computers processes so much important
data information exchange in the cyberspace,
and expands e-commerce fields to online
banking. Against this backdrop, the demand
for valid identity authentication is soaring
along with the growth of the related businesses.
Biometric methods do not involve danger
of information exposure and unauthorized
persons cannot attempt to steal or make
a guess at the private information.
Convenience is one of the greatest advantages
of biometrics compared to existing methods
of personal authentication such as keys,
identification numbers (ID) and passwords.
In other words, everyone can be uniquely
identified without the need for an ID,
a magnetic card, a smart card, a key or
a personal identification number (PIN).
A user can verify each individual by using
only physical traits such as fingerprints,
iris, palm, or voice. Also, using biometrics,
a machine can electronically recognize
a user, thereby enabling its system to
allow for the automatic response to that
user's request. In short, biometrics is
able to deliver both safety and convenience
in the identity verification field, thereby
reaping huge economic benefits.
Biometrics can be classified
according to the type of biometric data
used, e.g., face, iris, voice, signature,
or hand geometry identification. However,
all these methods take the same authentication
Mifare Contactless Smart Card Technology
MIFARE technology is a 13.56 MHz contactless
technology that is owned by Philips
Semiconductor, now known as NXP. They
do not make cards or readers, but they
make and sell the card chips and reader
chips in the open market. Card and reader
manufacturers use this technology to
create unique products for use by end-users.
MIFARE is often considered to be a "smart
card" technology. This is based
on the ability to read and write to
the card. In reality, MIFARE is simply
a memory card (as opposed to a processor
The MIFARE contactless smart card and
MIFARE card reader/writer were originally
developed to handle payment transactions
for public transportation systems. With
a short read-range, MIFARE was uniquely
suited to perform increment/decrement
functions. Although contact smart cards
could also do the job, contactless readers
are faster and easier to use, and there
is virtually no maintenance on the readers,
or wear and tear on the cards.
The typical read-range on a MIFARE contact
less smart card reader is 1.0"
to 3.9" (i.e., 2.5 to 10 cm).
Up to 15 different applications can
be stored on a MIFARE card, and these
applications will be separate and secure
from one another by using unique keys
(passwords) for each sector. The only
requirement is that the various application
providers must cooperate in the programming
of the MIFARE Applications Directory
(MAD), and that the keys to this directory
must be available to all application
MIFARE is a 13.56 MHz contactless technology
that is described under ISO 14443 Type
RFID stands for Radio
RFID is a generic
term for technologies that use radio
waves to automatically identify people
or objects. There are several methods
of identification, but the most common
is to store a serial number that identifies
a person or object, and perhaps other
information, on a microchip that is
attached to an antenna (the chip and
the antenna together are called an
RFID transponder or an RFID tag).
The antenna enables the chip to transmit
the identification information to
a reader. The reader converts the
radio waves reflected back from the
RFID tag into digital information
that can then be passed on to computers
that can make use of it.
An RFID system consists
of a tag, which is made up of a microchip
with an antenna, and an interrogator
or reader with an antenna. The reader
sends out electromagnetic waves. The
tag antenna is tuned to receive these
waves. A passive RFID tag draws power
from field created by the reader and
uses it to power the microchip's circuits.
The chip then modulates the waves
that the tag sends back to the reader
and the reader converts the new waves
into digital data.
The big difference
between bar codes and RFID is that
bar codes are line-of-sight technology.
That is, a scanner has to "see"
the bar code to read it, which means
people usually have to orient the
bar code towards a scanner for it
to be read. Radio frequency identification,
by contrast, doesn't require line
of sight. RFID tags can be read as
long as they are within range of a
reader. Bar codes have other shortcomings
as well. If a label is ripped, soiled
or falls off, there is no way to scan
the item. And standard bar codes identify
only the manufacturer and product,
not the unique item. The bar code
on one milk carton is the same as
every other, making it impossible
to identify which one might pass its
expiration date first.
Microchips in RFID
tags can be read-write or read-only.
With read-write chips, you can add
information to the tag or write over
existing information when the tag
is within range of a reader, or interrogator.
Read-write tags usually have a serial
number that can't be written over.
Additional blocks of data can be used
to store additional information about
the items the tag is attached to.
Some read-only microchips have information
stored on them during the manufacturing
process. The information on such chips
can never been changed. Other tags
can have a serial number written to
it once and then that information
can't be overwritten later.
Code Technology :
Standard bar codes are like a social
security number, acting as a reference
number that a computer uses to look
up associated descriptive data and other
The process requires
conversion of a bar code that can
be printed on or affixed to an item,
and subsequently read by a light source
and fed into a computer.
When a bar code scanner
is passed over the bar code:
The light source from the scanner
is absorbed by the dark bars and reflected
by the light spaces.
A photocell detector in the scanner
receives the reflected light and converts
the light in to an electrical signal.
As the barcode is scanned, a low electrical
signal for the spaces (reflected light)
and a high electrical signal for the
bars are created. The duration of
the electrical signal determines wide
vs. narrow elements. This signal can
be "decoded" by the bar
code reader's decoder into the character
that the bar code represents.
The decoded data is then passed to
the computer in a traditional data
Bar Code scanners
are faster than the human eye and
far more accurate. Based on tests,
bar code information has an accuracy
rate of 1 error per 10,000,000 characters.
Compare that to keyboard error rates
of 1 error per 100 characters. This
form of "automatic identification"
can help prevent misidentification
errors, which can help save lives
GSM stands for Global
GSM is an open, non-proprietary
system that is constantly evolving.
One of its great strengths is the
international roaming capability.
This gives consumers seamless and
same standardized same number connectivity
in almost all countries. GSM
satellite roaming has extended service
access to areas where terrestrial
coverage is not available.
GSM differs from first
generation wireless systems in that
it uses digital technology and time
division multiple access transmission
methods. Voice is digitally encoded
via a unique encoder, which emulates
the characteristics of human speech.
This method of transmission permits
a very efficient data rate/information
From the outset, GSM
has been a system designed with stringent
levels of inbuilt security. With constantly
enhanced transmission protocols and
algorithms added to the flexible and
future proof platform, GSM remains
the most secure public wireless standard
in the world.
The GSM Association,
based in Dublin, Ireland and London,
UK, represents the interests of more
than 690 GSM satellite and 3G operators,
key manufacturers and suppliers to
the GSM industry as well as regulatory
and administrative bodies from more
than 190 countries and regions around
the world. Most of the first third
generation licensees are also members.
The GSM Association is responsible
for the continued maintenance of open
standards and interoperability. The
global cooperation between operators
is most powerfully illuminated by
the success of international roaming.
One of the Association's major priorities
is the development and promotion of
the GSM standard worldwide.